Almost all Japanese particles have more than one function.
For example, particle で (de) specifies the vehicle used, indicates the place where the action is taken, and shows the mean or tool used to perform an action.
Particle と (to) is used when you are taking action with someone.
Another function for と (to) is to use it for quotation in a sentence (which means you are quoting what another people has said) which will be discussed in lesson 27.
Let's discuss the first function here.
You have already learned to use と (to) to connect 2 nouns in Lesson 8.
Another function for Japanese particle と (to) is to use it when you are taking action with someone. (Note: This function has been introduced in lesson 11 briefly)
The basic sentence pattern for this function is as follow...
Person/Animal と [ いっしょに ] Action
Note: いっしょに (which means together with) inside [ ] is optional
Let's use some examples to show how to use this sentence pattern...
If you want to specify that you are doing something alone instead of with someone, replace といっしょに with ひとりで. For example...
You can use particle で (de) to show what vehicle you are using for your movement using the following expression...
Vehicle で Place いきます / きます / かえります
Using some examples to show the usage of the above expression...
This function of で (de) is similar to "at" in English. When you perform an action at a place you can use で (de) to indicate the place. The expression is as follow...
Place で Action
Let's look at some examples...
When you want to mention in a sentence what tool or mean is used in your action, you can use the particle で (de) as in the following expression...
Tool/Mean で Verb(Action)
Let's see some examples first on using tool in an action...
Next let's see some examples on using mean in an action...
If you want to know more about particles, I recommend you get one of these books on particles.
Lesson 11: Particles.
Lesson 14: Particles Change in Negative Answers.
Lesson 15: Particles ka and mo with Question Words.
Lesson 24: Particles wa and ga.
Lesson 27: Particle to for Quotation.
Intermediate Lesson 14: Particle ga for Introduction.
Intermediate Lesson 18: Particle de with more Functions.
Intermediate Lesson 34: Particle de for Cause or Reason.
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