In this lesson you will get to learn the Japanese verbs on giving and receiving.
There are 3 special verbs that you will come across very often on giving and receiving. They are:
In the first 2 verbs, あげます (agemasu) means "to give" and もらいます (moraimasu) means "to receive".
Let's look at the following expressions using this 2 Japanese verbs...
In the first expression, the focus is put on the Giver as it is the topic. It means the Giver is giving Object to the Receiver.
Whereas in the second expression, the emphasis is put on the Receiver. The sentence means the Receiver is receiving Object from the Giver.
For the second expression, you can either use に (ni) or から (kara) before the Object.
Let's make some examples using the above 2 expressions to explain the two Japanese verbs more clearly.
Assuming that yesterday was Mr Yamada's birthday and he has received a present from his friend Mr Tanaka.
You can change the Japanese verb sentence into question by changing some of the words. Let's use the previous example as a model...
If you want to ask who is the person that たなかさん has given the book to, change やまださん to だれ (dare)...
If you want to ask what is the thing that たなかさん has given to やまださん, change ほん to なに (nani)...
If you want to ask who has given やまださん a book, change たなかさん to だれ (dare). However, you cannot have question word with は (wa) such as だれは (darewa). In this case you need to replace は (wa) with が (ga)...
Using the same logic, you can create the questions for the もらいます sentences.
The third Japanese verb くれます (kuremasu) has the same meaning of "to give" as あげます (agemasu). However, you need to take note of some rules to decide which one to use in your sentence.
In Japanese custom, it is important and is always the first priority to show respect to other people (third person).
In that perspective, your family members are considered part of yourself. Therefore when comparing to third person, your family members have to be in lower priority.
Secondly, if third person is absent, you have to show respect to your family members, putting yourself in the lowest priority. This is even true to family members younger than you.
Based on the above two conditions, when you have to show respect to ONLY the Giver, use くれます (kuremasu). Other than that you have to use the Japanese verb あげます (agemasu).
In summary, look at the following table to decide which Japanese verb to use...
|1.||Third Person||Third Person||あげます|
|2.||Third Person||Me/Family Members||くれます|
|3.||I/Family Members||Third Person||あげます|
It will be easier to understand the above with some examples...
It will be good if you can understand the concept of the above Japanese verbs because Japanese use them frequently in their daily conversation.
Lesson 18: Verbs.
Lesson 21: Verbs te-form.
Lesson 29: Verbs on State Continuation.
Lesson 30: Verbs - Transitive and Intransitive verbs.
Intermediate Lesson 37: Giving and Receiving of Actions in Japanese Part 1.
Intermediate Lesson 38: Giving and Receiving of Actions in Japanese Part 2.