Sentence showing Japanese time expression can be formed using either Noun sentence or Verb sentence.
You will learn how to form sentences showing time and some required particles in this lesson.
So far I have not touched on Japanese verbs yet, but I will give some examples using simple verb sentences.
Please refer to Japanese lesson 18 and onwards for lessons on Japanese verbs and related topics.
You should first take a look at the sections on Japanese time and Japanese Day Month Week to familiarize with how to read time in Japanese.
Let's start with using Noun sentence to show Japanese time expression.
"What is the time now?" How to say it in Japanese? The simplest is to use the following Noun sentence expression...
Topic wa ima nanji desu ka
Meaning: What is the time now in Topic?
For example, you can say...
You can use the particles から (kara) and まで (made) to state the time frame from which an event occurs. You can use the following expressions...
Topic wa nanji kara desu ka
Meaning: What is the starting time for Topic?
Topic wa nanji made desu ka
Meaning: What is the ending time for Topic?
Topic wa nanji kara nanji made desu ka
Meaning: What is the starting and ending time for Topic?
The above expressions are best used to ask for the operating time for supermarkets, banks, clinics or works, etc.
If you want to ask about which day the bank is closed, use the following expression...
Similarly, to ask which month, you can say なんがつ (nangatsu).
Generally, if you want to ask when something will be happened without specifying hour, day or month, the question word is いつ (itsu). For example...
When using verb sentence to ask about starting or ending time, what time someone wake up or go to bed, use the following expressions...
Topic wa nanji ni hajimarimasu ka
Meaning: When does the Topic start?
Topic wa nanji ni owarimasu ka
Meaning: When does the Topic end?
Topic wa nanji ni okimasu ka
Meaning: When does the Topic wake up?
Topic wa nanji ni nemasu ka
Meaning: When does the Topic go to bed?
Point to note is that when using verb sentence for Japanese time expression, you must use the particle に (ni).
However, there are certain time expressions where に (ni) is not required. See below (end of this page) for the lists.
Normally for verb sentence, the format is Object を Verb. However, the above 4 verbs...
... are some exceptions where the object is not required.
Typically a verb sentence with Japanese time expression will be...
Topic は Time Expression (に) Object を Verb
Let use some examples to show the above expression...
You can also use the general question word いつ (itsu) to ask about timing with verb sentence instead of asking the specific time for the Japanese time expression...
Or you can ask directly which month and which day with verb sentence...
The following 2 lists show those Japanese time expressions that require the particle に (ni) and those that do not require に (ni).
|3.||一日||ついたち||tsuitachi||1st day of the month|
|6.||～曜日||～ようび||~youbi||~Day of the Week|
|9.||休みの日||やすみのひ||yasuminohi||Rest Day/Off Day|
|10.||一昨日||おととい||ototoi||The Day Before Yesterday|
|14.||明後日||あさって||asatte||The Day after Tomorrow|
|30.||昔||むかし||mukashi||In the Past/In the Old Days|
|31.||この前||このまえ||konomae||The Other Day/Recently|
|32.||この間||このあいだ||konoaida||The Other Day/Recently|
The above 2 lists of Japanese time expression are not exhaustive, but you should get the idea which are those that require に (ni).
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