In this lesson, you'll learn the next Japanese conditional form - ても (temo) Sentence. By definition, it simply translates to "Even if ~" in English.
ても (temo) Sentence is used to indicate a reverse condition. It's used when an action which is expected to be taken or an event which is expected to happen naturally under the given circumstances does not materialize or a thing turns out in a way opposite to a socially accepted idea.
Let's check out the sentence patterns for ても (temo) sentence...
|Sentence 1 (て-form)||も、||Sentence 2|
|Verb (て-form)||も、||Sentence 2|
|な-Adj で||も、||Sentence 2|
|Noun で||も、||Sentence 2|
|Verb ない-form (～
|な-Adj でなくて||も、||Sentence 2|
|Noun でなくて||も、||Sentence 2|
We called this conditional form ても (temo) sentence because it means て-form + も (te-form + mo). However, it doesn't mean it's always ても (temo), sometimes it can be でも (demo), sometimes it can be っても (ttemo), depending on what is the て-form (te-form) in Sentence 1 of the sentence structures.
Let's look at an example to see how this sentence works...
Imagine you have been taking a lot of food recently. Beside the normal 3 meals, you took plenty of snacks in between meals, and ate a lot of junk foods for supper. If you continue doing this for weeks, normally it's natural that you'll put on weight. In this case, you can use the と (to) sentence to describe the situation.
However, if the opposite result happens, you should use ても (temo) sentence to describe the situation. That means you don't gain weight even if you eat a lot of food. For ても (temo) sentence, what happens is opposite to what people normally expected.
|たくさん食べます||→||太ります||←||naturally happen||use と sentence|
|たくさん食べます||→||太りません||←||opposite result happen||use ても sentence|
Normally, when the surrounding is noisy, you won't be able to sleep easily. However, if you can sleep under such noisy environment, you can then use ても (temo) sentence to describe the situation.
|うるさい||→||寝られません||←||normal||use と sentence|
|うるさい||→||寝られます||←||opposite||use ても sentence|
From the last example, you'll notice that the second sentence 洗濯します (sentaku shimasu) is a personal will. This is allowed in ても (temo) sentence.
In fact, as compared to と (to) sentence, this Japanese conditional form is much simpler because there is no restriction in Sentence 2. You can have one's will, hope, judgement, permission, order, invitation or request, etc in Sentence 2. For example...
The second sentence サッカーします (sakka- shimasu) - "to play soccer" is a personal will, but it's allowed in ても (temo) sentence.
Even if there is no class, your teacher will still ask you to come to school. The second sentence in this example is a request form, but it's allowed here.
For Japanese conditional form ても (temo) sentence, you use it when the opposite result happens (or opposite action is taken) to what people normally expected. And there is no regulation in Sentence 2.
For と (to) sentence, one's will, hope, judgement, permission, order, invitation or request, etc cannot be used in Sentence 2. To use all these in Sentence 2, you have to use ば (ba), なら (nara) and たら (tara) sentences which you are going to learn in next few lessons.
Lesson 24: と (to) Sentence.
Lesson 26: ば (ba) / なら (nara) Sentence.
Lesson 27: たら (tara) Sentence.
Lesson 28: たら (tara) Sentence Special Case.