のに noni is used when what is stated in the second sentence runs against to what is expected from the first sentence.
The second sentence carries the implication of unexpectedness or dissatisfaction and it's often used for complaint.
Let's check out the sentence patterns of this grammar のに (noni). Just like ので (node), のに (noni) follows verbs, adjectives or nouns.
|Sentence 1 のに||Sentence 2 (Contrary Result)|
|Verb plain-form のに||Contrary Result|
|い-adj plain-form のに||Contrary Result|
Note: Non-factual sentence like an intention, an order, a request, a permission or a suggestion cannot be used in the second sentence.
Let's look at some examples...
yakusoku wo shita noni, kanojo wa kimasendeshita
Meaning: She did not come, even though she promised.
kyou wa shukujitsu na noni, hatarakanakereba narimasen
Meaning: Even though today is holiday, I have to work.
In example 1, the speaker expects that the woman will come because she promised to do so. So he naturally feels disappointed that she did not come. In example 2, Holiday is normally a rest day, yet the speaker has to work so he feels dissatisfied. The second sentence implies feelings of unexpectedness or dissatisfaction.
ので (node) indicates the cause or reason of certain event while のに (noni) shows the contrary result. Let's use some examples to show how the result changed using either ので (node) or のに (noni).
kyou wa atsui node, T-shatsu wo kiteimasu
Meaning: It is hot today, therefore I am wearing a T-Shirt.
kyou wa atsui noni, se-ta- wo kiteimasu
Meaning: Even though it is hot today, I am wearing a sweater.
kinou wa yasumi datta node, ichinichijuu nemashita
Meaning: Yesterday was my rest day, therefore I slept the whole day.
kinou wa yasumi datta noni, shigoto wo shimashita
Meaning: Even though yesterday was my rest day, I went to work.
raishuu tesuto ga aru node, otouto wa isshoukenmei benkyou shite imasu
Meaning: There is a test on next week, therefore my younger brother is studying very hard.
raishuu tesuto ga aru noni, otouto wa asonde imasu
Meaning: Even though there is a test on next week, my younger brother is playing.
daietto wo shita node, yasemashita
Meaning: I lost weight since I went through a diet.
daietto wo shita noni, futorimashita
Meaning: Even though I went through a diet, I put on weight.
nihongo wo juunen benkyoushita node, nihongo ga jouzu desu
Meaning: I have studied Japanese for ten years, therefore I am good at Japanese.
nihongo wo juunen benkyoushita noni, nihongo ga heta desu
Meaning: Even though I have studied Japanese for ten years, I am still bad at Japanese.
In example 1, normally when it's hot, you'll wear something thin like a T-shirt. But for のに's case, you wear something thick like a sweater, showing unexpected contrary result.
In example 2, you rest because it's your rest day. But for のに's case, you went to work instead, showing your unsatisfied feeling.
The rest of the examples also show the unexpected or dissatisfied contrary results in のに's cases.
When translating のに (noni) into English, you can simply use the word "but". There are some other terms which also carry the meaning of "but", like for example, が (ga) and ても (temo). However, they are being used in different situations.
|ても (temo):||Possibility (you can have contrary result)|
|のに (noni):||Fact (contrary result with surprising or unsatisfied feeling)|
Let's use some examples to show the difference between ～のに and ～が/～ても.
watashi no heya wa semai desu ga, kirei desu
Meaning: My room is small but clean.
ashita ame ga futtemo, dekakemasu
Meaning: Even if it rains tomorrow, I will go out.
が (ga) in example 1 above cannot be substituted with のに (noni) - "狭いのに". This is because が (ga) simply joins two different evaluations together and the second sentence therein does not represent an unexpected consequence of what is stated in the first sentence.
Similary, ても (temo) in example 2 cannot be replaced by のに (noni) - "雨が降るのに", the first sentence suggests a possibility, but のに (noni) can only indicate things that have actually occurred in reality (fact).
Let's look at another example.
yakusoku wo shita noni, doushite konakattan desu ka
Meaning: You promised to come. Why didn't you come?
In the above example, のに (noni) cannot be substituted with が (ga) or ても (temo) - "約束をしましたが" / "約束をしても". This is because the second sentence expresses a strong reproach (dissatifaction).
Let's practise on connecting the following sentences using either が (ga), ても (temo) or のに (noni). Some of the examples might be able to use more than one of them to connect the two sentences.
kono heya wa hiroi desu. kurai desu
ashita ame ga furimasu. sakka- wo shimasu
ane wa takusan tabemasu. futorimasen
kinou urusakatta desu. yoku neraremashita
rainen okane ga arimasen. nihon e ikimashou
sumimasen. toire wa doko desu ka
Have you figured out which one (or more) to use to connect the sentences? Below are my answers and the explanation on why which one was used (or not used).
kono heya wa hiroi desu ga. kurai desu
Meaning: This room is spacious but dark.
In example 1, we are using が (ga) to join two different evaluations together. There's no relationship between the two. Only that one is positive meaning (広い) and the other is negative meaning (暗い). You cannot connect them using ても (temo) or のに (noni) because the second sentence does not contain contrary result of what is expected.
ashita ame ga futtemo, sakka- wo shimasu
Meaning: Even if it rains tomorrow, I will play soccer.
In example 2, it's not a fact but only a possibility which may happen tomorrow. Therefore only ても (temo) can be used in this case.
ane wa takusan tabemasu ga, futorimasen
Meaning: My elder sister eats a lot, but she doesn't get fat.
ane wa takusan tabetemo, futorimasen
Meaning: Even if my elder sister eats a lot, she doesn't get fat.
ane wa takusan taberu noni, futorimasen
Meaning: Even though my elder sister eats a lot, she doesn't get fat.
が (ga), ても (temo) and のに (noni) can all be used in example 3. However, there are slight differences in terms of the meaning of each sentence, especially the feeling of the speaker.
When using が (ga), you are just describing the fact about your elder sister that she eats a lot but never get fat. There's no personal feeling when you say that.
When ても (temo) is used, you are saying that your elder doesn't usually eat a lot but even if she eats a lot, she won't get fat. You are talking about the possibility.
If のに (noni) is used instead, you are saying that even though your elder sister eats a lot, she never get fat (with some dissatisfied feeling). Probably you are jealous with your elder sister since you gain weight easily even if you eat a little. You are feeling some unfairness.
kinou urusakatta desu ga, yoku neraremashita
Meaning: It was noisy yesterday, but I could sleep well.
kinou urusakatta noni, yoku neraremashita
Meaning: Even though it was noisy yesterday, I could sleep well.
Example 4 is a past event on yesterday. Therefore ても (temo) sentence (possibility) cannot be used. For the sentence using が (ga), you are just describing the fact that you could sleep well although it was noisy yesterday. There is no personal feeling.
For sentence using のに (noni), there is a surprising feeling. You are amazed that you are not sensitive to the noise and could sleep well yesterday.
rainen okane ga nakutemo, nihon e ikimashou
Meaning: Even if we don't have money next year, let's go to Japan.
The event for example 5 may happen in next year which mean it's only a possibility. Therefore only ても (temo) sentence can be used.
sumimasen ga, toire wa doko desu ka
Meaning: Excuse me, where is the toilet?
In example 6, the が (ga) here is introduction no が (ga), which works as an introduction before you bring out the actual thing you want to say. ても (temo) and のに (noni) cannot be used here.
Lesson 14: Introduction no が (ga)
Lesson 25: ても (temo) Sentence.