Basic Hiragana Chart and Additionals

The hiragana chart below shows the 46 basic characters together with their romaji. The 5 in the first row are the vowels.

Combined with the vowels, the rest of the rows formed the remaining hiragana. The only exception is the singular consonant ん (n).

Besides, though を is written as (wo), it is pronounced the same as お (o).

Note: Don't get overwhelmed by the amount of characters you see in the various charts. You are not required to learn and memorize them in a day. I spent about few weeks to learn the 46 basic characters.

To know what is the correct pronunciation of each hiragana character, go to this "Learn to speak Japanese online with hiragana audios" page.

The 46 Basic Characters

vowels
a

i

u

e

o
k-line
ka

ki

ku

ke

ko
s-line
sa

shi

su

se

so
t-line
ta

chi

tsu

te

to
n-line
na

ni

nu

ne

no
h-line
ha

hi

fu

he

ho
m-line
ma

mi

mu

me

mo
y-line
ya
 
yu
 
yo
r-line
ra

ri

ru

re

ro
w-line
wa
     
wo
 
n
       

The above hiragana chart is also called 五十音図 (gojuuonzu), which means diagram of 50 sounds in Japanese, though it only has 46 sounds.

濁音 (dakuon) and 半濁音 (handakuon)

Additional hiragana are formed by adding double dots ( ゛) and circle ( ゜) to the upper right hand corner of certain hiragana. By adding double dots or 濁点 (dakuten) to k-line, s-line, t-line and h-line, we will get the additional hiragana of g-line, z-line, d-line and b-line respectively.

And by adding circle or 半濁点 (handakuten) to the h-line, the p-line is formed. See the additional hirigana chart below.

g-line
ga

gi

gu

ge

go
z-line
za

ji

zu

ze

zo
d-line
da

ji

zu

de

do
b-line
ba

bi

bu

be

bo
p-line
pa

pi

pu

pe

po

Note: ぢ & づ in the d-line are less commonly used as compared to じ & ず

拗音 (youon)

Another group of additional Japanese hiragana called 拗音 (youon) is formed by adding smaller version of ya, yu or yo (ゃ, ゅ or ょ) to hiragana ending in vowel i. See the hiragana chart below.

k-line きゃ
kya
きゅ
kyu
きょ
kyo
s-line しゃ
sha
しゅ
shu
しょ
sho
t-line ちゃ
cha
ちゅ
chu
ちょ
cho
n-line にゃ
nya
にゅ
nyu
にょ
nyo
h-line ひゃ
hya
ひゅ
hyu
ひょ
hyo
m-line みゃ
mya
みゅ
myu
みょ
myo
r-line りゃ
rya
りゅ
ryu
りょ
ryo

Below shows the additional hiragana chart of 拗音 (youon) with 濁点 (dakuten) and 半濁点 (handakuten).

g-line ぎゃ
gya
ぎゅ
gyu
ぎょ
gyo
z-line じゃ
ja
じゅ
ju
じょ
jo
b-line びゃ
bya
びゅ
byu
びょ
byo
p-line ぴゃ
pya
ぴゅ
pyu
ぴょ
pyo

促音 (sokuon)

When a small tsu (っ) called 促音 (sokuon) is added, it means the following consonant is germinated or doubled (double consonants). This small (っ) forms the double consonants with the following character.

This also means after we pronounce the previous consonant, we pause for the same amount of time used to pronounce the consonant, then continue to pronounce the following consonant.

For example, when "と" in おと (oto which means "sound") is germinated, it becomes おっと (otto which means "husband"), with a pause in between お and と when pronounced.

  • おと (oto) → おっと (otto)

However, hiragana from the n-line cannot be germinated, unless the singular consonant ん (n) is added in front.

Long Vowels 長音 (chouon)

For long vowels, we normally add a second vowel following the first vowel. For examples,

Hiragana Romaji Meaning
おば さん o ba a san grandmother/old woman
おじ さん o ji i san grandfather/old man
su u ji numeral/figure
おね さん o ne e san elder sister
e i ga movie
ko o ri ice
りつ ho u ri tsu law

Although both sokuon and chouon are not in the hiragana charts, they are important in helping to pronounce Japanese correctly.

Take some time to memorize the above hiragana charts. It really helps when you start to learn kanji.

Related Page

FAQ Page: What are sokuon and long vowels?

› Hiragana Chart

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